Cyber-English all the Way?
Out of the 7,106 recorded living languages, only 394 or 6% of living languages are used by 94% of the worlds population while the remaining 94% of languages are used only by an average of 1 million people or less [Ethnologue]. In terms of language footprint by content, Internet World Stats estimates that there are approximately 165 languages with web presence today and only 36 of them are actively used. Wikipedia currently hosts 288 languages and Google Translate supports already 90 languages at various levels. Today, 56% of web content is in English, and together with the other top 10 mainstream languages on the internet, account for 80% of online content.
|There are thousands of languages across the world, but a smile speaks them all.|
- Auh, Taik-Sup - Korea University, Republic of Korea
Promoting Multilingualism on the Internet: Korean Experience
Since its birth, the Internet has been dominated by the English language and North-American culture. In a world of five to eight thousand different ethnic groups who reside in approximately 160 nations states speaking 5,000 distinct languages, some language must be the common language of the Internet. Many people believe that English must be default the standard language on the Internet. There are clear indications of English becoming a lingua franca in the cyberspace. The autor summarizes the advantages of multicultural and multilingual Internet. He argues that multilingualism on the internet is a necessary, if not the sufficient, condition for transforming an ephemeral (= unstable and transitory) cybersociety into a robust one.
- Benamar, Nabil
 Towards a multilingual internet
In: The Internet Society, 9.11.2012
- Chomprang, Duangthip
 Multilingualism and the End of the Global Internet?
In: The Internet Society, 3.12.2014
In the Internet world, all links are created equal. For most of us, or at least one third of the worlds population who can read and speak the English language this holds true. But for others, this link is not as equal, as they face language barriers to the Internet. The internet we love and know today was by design built as a global network but not a multilingual network.
- Danet, Brenda / Herring, Susan C.
 (eds.) The Multilingual Internet - Language, Culture, and Communication Online
Oxford University Press.
The internet has become a truly global communication network. Many scholars have expressed concern about the dominance of world Onglish, and the internet as a new arena for its spread. Some view the spread of English as a natural or benign extension of globalization. Others take a dimmer view, writing of «linguistic imperialism» and its threat to the status of smaller languages. This book is devoted to the research to other languages on the internet.
- Denglish - Verein Deutsche Sprache (VDS)
The German language is flooded with a plethora of unnecessary and unsightly English expressions for years. This anglicisation the German language is related to the global spread of the American way of life. Behind this stands the political and economic power of the United States that has transformed the ways of life of many countries and their languages. The Association of the German Language dont want a «pure» German language, but they also want to reduce the penetration of english words into the German language. We want to resist the anglicisation the German language and remind the people of Germany to the value and the beauty of their native language. We want to preserve and develop our language. The ability to invent new words to describe new things must not be lost.
- Lischka, Konrad
 Barbies Fleisch: English ist keine Weltsprache - es gibt viele englische Sprachen
In: Telepolis, 29.3.2001.
- Flynn, Mary Kathleen
 Nations fear English language dominance on Net
The march of American culture across the planet has been done with Mickey Mouse, McDonald's Hamburgers, and the internet. And many governments fear this American imperialism. CNN correspondent Flynn describes some of the attempts to protect the national language and culture from being swamped by English words and American influences.
- Horvath, John
 Die Lingua Franca des Netzes
German essay on the fate of English as a world language. The globalizing effect of communication systems has created new sensibility for existing language barriers. Many people think that these problems can only be solved by creating a lingua franca. And many people believe that English is already a lingua franca. Can English really be a lingua franca, or is multi-linguality the next stage on the Internet?
- Internet World Users by Language
- Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication (JCMC)
The Multilingual Internet - Language, Culture and Communication in Instant Messaging, E-mail and Chat
In: JCMC, 8(1), 2003.
- John, Nicholas A.
 The Construction of the Multilingual Internet: Unicode, Hebrew, and Globalization
An examination of the technologies that enable the representation of Hebrew on websites. Hebrew is written from right to left and in non-Latin characters, issues shared by a number of languages which seem to be converging on a shared solution-Unicode. It shows how competing solutions have given way to one dominant technology. Processes in the Israeli context are linked with broader questions about the multilingual Internet, asking whether the commonly accepted solution for representing non-Latin texts on computer screens is an instance of cultural imperialism and convergence around a western artifact. It is argued that while minority languages are given an online voice by Unicode, the context is still one of Western power.
In: Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 18(3): 321-338, April 2013
- Lebert, Marie
 Multilingualism on the Web | Idem - Gutenberg
The internet transcends limitations of time, distances and borders. But the main language of the internet has been English. Although the use of other languages is steadily increasing, and there's still an English hegemony today. Lebert expecs that the distribution of languages on the internet will correspondend to the language distribution on the planet, and free translation software in all languages will be available for instantaneous translation of any website. She analyses what has to be done before multilingualism can be really effective.
- Linguistic Society of America (LSA)
- Lischka, Konrad
 Barbies Fleisch: English ist keine Weltsprache - es gibt viele englische Sprachen
- Lockard, Joe
 Resisting Cyber-English
In: Bad Subjects, Issue # 24, February 1996.
An essay that is not "Anti-English, but tries to argue "that English must be practiced as an open field rather than a linguistic prisonhouse where involuntary anglophones do hard time behind the steel bars of alien grammar." But he also argues "that in practice English is not home for increasing millions of cyber-citizens or cyber-wannabes who cannot access the nets easily or at all because their languages are not the net's primary operating language."
- Maceviciute, Elena
 Multilingual Virtual World: Languages on the Internet
- Multilingual Information Society programme (MLIS)
Directorate-General XIII - Telecommunications, Information Market and Research. MLIS sets out to support the construction of an infrastructure for European language resources; to mobilise and expand the language industries; to promote the use of advanced language tools in the European public sector. Companies, public sector organisations, the language industries and citizens can benefit from this programme.
- Multilingual Internet Group
A group or organizations and companies that predicts that 2013 will see the birth of the multilingual internet.
- Nellen, Ted
Cyber English: Practical Theory
- Nunberg, Geoffrey
 Will the Internet always Speak English?
In: American Prospects, 11(10), March-April 2000.
The Web is dominated by English. In 1999 about 85% of the text on Web pages was in English. Although the overall proportion of English has demished since then, theres no question that the proportion of Englsh will remain disproportionately high for some time to come.Some view the prospect of an English-dominated Web with a certain alarm. The French President Jacques Chirac described the prevalence of English on the internet as a major risk for humanity, which threatens to imposte linguistic and cultural uniformity on the world. Nurnberg however argues that it is a mistake to assume that the linguistic effects of the internet can be measured in raw percantages of global language use. What matters is not simply how widely a language is used, but why and when people use it and how it figures into their sense of social identity.
- Pany, Thomas
 Das Ende des Englischen als Weltsprache
In: Telepolis, 30.12.2010.
Do translation programs and economic developments break the power of English? The predominance of Oxford-English, along with the correct pronunciation, which has been presumed to be the only valid English in our school, has been broken since a long time. In the last two decades, English has evolved into our world language, which has enriched itself with all possible accents and formulation features from other countries.
- Taylor, Emily
 Speaking your language | UNESCO and EURid workshop on multilingual Internet, IGF Baku | The internet language roadblock
- Treanor, Paul
Language Futures Europe
Treanor created a site on the language futures of Europe. It contains links on language policy, multilingualism, global language structures, and the dominance of English. It starts with a comment on the structures of language: then texts/essays, and sections on EU policy, national policies, and research sites. Finally there are links on the "monolingual movement" in the United States.on language policy, linguistic identity in Europe.
- Tsuda, Yukio - Nagoya University, Japan
 English Hegemony and English Divide
The use of English is very much taken for granted in international communication today. Tsuda argues that it should be examined as a problem of linguistic hegemony. The dominance of English causes not only linguistic and communicative inequality, but also the feelings of anxiety and insecurity especially on the part of the non-English-speaking people. In this paper Tsuda categorizes the linguistic stuides of the global spread of English into three different positions: pro-hegemonic, functional/ideological and critical/transformative.
 Linguistic diversity and multilingualism on Internet
Language is a primary vector for communicating information and knowledge. The opportunity to use ones language on the internet determines the extent to which one can participate in emerging knowledge societies. Internet has brought about diverse opportunities for sharing information and knowledge in various languages. Anyone in principle can produce content, share it with the rest of the world and receive feedback. In principle, the internet is open to all languages of the world when certain technical conditions are met, and when the necessary human and financial resources are in place. However, many languages are not present on the internet. There is a vast linguistic divide, which exists in cyberspace today and this will only exacerbate the digital divide. Everyone therefore should have access to the multilingual internet.
- Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights [includes versions in other languages]
Barcelona, june 1996.
- Uszkoreit, Hans
 Quality Translation: Addressing the Next Barrier to Multilingual Communication on the Internet - Videolecture
As Europe has integration politically, languages are still one of the most pervasive barriers to interpersonal communication, cross-border commerce, and full participation in European democracy. Despite recent progress in machine translation, it is clear that the quality of todays internet-based translation services is neither good enough for many tasks nor complete in terms of language coverage. Speakers of smaller languages thus find themselves largely excluded from vital discussions of European identity and policy. This talk argues in favor of a concerted push in Europe for quality translation technology and address concrete preparatory actions performed by the EC-funded QT LaunchPad Project. It discusses how these actions will directly influence the future of the Multilingual Web, both in Europe and around the world.
- Warschauer, Mark / Florio-Hansen, Inez de
 Multilingualism, Identity, and the Internet
In: A. Hu and I. De Florio-Hansen (Eds), Multiple identity and multilingualism (pp. 155-179). Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
- Wikipedia: Multilingualism
|Machine Translation Tools
Machine translation is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of software to translate text or speech from one language to another.
- Bing Translator
A free multilingual statistical machine translation service that translates texts or entire web pages into different languages. Bing Translator offers translations in 51 languages.
- Google Translate
A free multilingual statistical machine translation service that translates text, speech, images, or real-time video from one language into another. It also offers a mobile interfaces for Android and iOS. Google Translate supports 90 languages. The Statistical Machine Translation gathers loads of data over time to statistically offer you the best combination of translation in any given language pair.
Try the translation of this page:
- Yandex Translate
A web service for translation of text or web pages into another language. It uses a self-learning statistical machine translation. Yandex can simultaneously translate in 63 languages. The translator is built into the Yandex.Browser and automatically offers to translate text from supported foreign languages. Also available as an app for your mobile phone.
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A general English-language dictionary. Its simple search form hides a sophisticated multi-source search of Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, WordNet, The Free Online Dictionary of Computing, Jargon File, The Elements, Eastons 1897 Bible Dictionary, Hitchcocks Bible Names Dictionary, U.S. Gazetteer, and The CIA World Factbook.
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- Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)
The revised fourth edition, supplied by the US Department of Labor (DOL).
- Dictionary of PC Hardware and Data Communications Terms
A comprehensive dictionary that provides complete descriptions of complex terms in two of the most volatile and interesting areas of computer development: personal computers and networks. It contains up-to-date information about everything from a common item like batteries to an obscure font technology called Speedo. Editor: Mitchell Shnier.
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Materials for reading, writing, speaking, listening English, but also Albanian, Arabic, Chinese, Croatian, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Polish, Russian, and Spanish.
Free On-line Dictionary of Computing. A searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecomms, electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing. Created by: Denis Howe.
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- Glossary of Social Science Computer and Social Science Data Terms
An on-line glossary of about 100 terms used in social science data archives. Edited by the University of San Diego-California.
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Excellent online thesaurus of terms used in the ESRC Data Archive at Essex University data catalog Biron. Also an excellent social science thesaurus apart from its ability to search Biron.
- Inter-Active Terminology for Europe (IATE)
The EUs multilingual terminology database. IATE incorporates all of the existing terminology databases of the EUs translation services into one interinstitutional database containing approximately 1.4 million multilingual entries.
- Jargon File Resources
It indexes all the WWW resources associated with the Jargon File and its print version, The New Hacker's Dictionary. It's as official as anything associated with the Jargon File gets. You can browse or search this comprehensive compendium of hacker slang illuminating many aspects of hackish tradition, folklore, and humor. Editor: Eric S. Raymond et al.
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- Meyers Konversationslexikon - Das Wissen A-Z
Offers more than 44.000 articles and 12.000 links. The database is searchable. It supports full boolean operators and syntax. Search terms may be truncated with an asterisk (e.g. hyper*).
- Netlingo - an internet dictionary
- New Hacker's Dictionary
And here seems to be the original hackers dictionary (by Eric Raymond).
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Searches in 66+ general and specialized English dictionaries simultaneously. You can pick specific dictionaries from a grouping of subject-specific dictionaries. From computer and science dictionaries to sports and religion dictionaries to general dictionaries. Editor: Robert K. Ware.
- Online Dictionary of the Social Sciences - Athabasca University and ICAAP
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- Online Slang Dictionary - A Collobarative Project
- Rap Dictionary
The totally unofficial rap dictionary by: Patrick "Tricky" Atoon and Niels "Jax" Jansen. Rap slang dictionary, references to hip hop resources and much more. For people who don't come from the Ghetto but like to listen to Rap. Looks great and feels like 'nutt'. The database is searchable:
- Search Engine Terms
In English, French, Italian, Germa, Spanish, Dutch, and Serbian.
- Skeptics Dictionary, The - Robert T. Carroll
Wherein may be found definitions and opinionated essays on matters occult, paranormal, supernatural and pseudoscientific with references to skeptical materials on subjects from acupuncture to zombis.
- Sociology Lexicon - ATS Group
A resource for English synonyms, antonyms, and definitions. Type in a word and the synonym finder will come up with a list of synonyms. Check out the most popular online synonym searches to find the right word for any occasion. Use the antonym tool to find find antonyms and check out the definitions feature to read the definition.
- Synonym Dictionary of English
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- Webref: Social Sciences
Glossaries of terms related to sociology, psychology, political sciences, archeology and anthropology.
- Urban Dictionary
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- Merriam-Webster: Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia
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- Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 & 1828 Edition) - ARTFL Projekt.
A cross-referenced glossary of Internet terms designed for fast lookup. Organized alphabetically and by topic.
- Your Dictionary
An easy to use on-line dictionary and thesaurus presented by the LoveToKnow Corporation.
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- NASA Thesaurus, part 1 | part 2 (1998 Edition)
The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized subject terms by which the documents in the NASA STI Databases are indexed and retrieved. It comprises two volumes. The Hierarchical Listing With Definitions contains all subject terms and USE cross references currently approved for use, and displays the full hierarchical structure for each term. Over 17,700 terms, 3,832 definitions, and approximately 4,000 USE references are contained in the Hierarchical Listing. The Rotated Term Display is a ready reference tool which provides thousands of additional access points to the thesaurus terminology. It contains the postable terms and nonpostable terms found in the Hierarchical Listing arranged in a KWIC (key-word-in-context) index.
- Rogets Thesaurus
A catalog of English words and phrases that can be accessed by keyword searching
or by browsing an outline which groups words by similarity of meaning. Originally published in 1852 by Dr. Peter Mark Roget under the title, Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, Classified and Arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of
Ideas and Assist in Literary Composition. Provided by MICRA Inc. and the Gutenberg Project.
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- Acronym and Abbreviation Server - University College Cork, Ireland
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A glossary of computer oriented abbreveviations and acronyms. Created by Irving & Richard Kind.
- Canonical Abbreviation / Acronym List
Compiled by James Marshall. If you dont understand these kind of lines: GOK why your GF is an EDP in F2F relations. If I Tell You What It Means, Will You Buy Me A Drink? (IITYWIMWYBMAD).
- Internet Begrippen
A Dutch acronym list for the Internet. Editor: Albert Benschop, Amsterdam.
- Wiley: Scientific and Technical Acronyms, Symbols and Abbreviations
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- Ethnologue - Languages of the World
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- Free Translator
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- Inter Active Terminology for Europe (IATE)
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- LOGOS - Multilingual E-Translation Portal
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- Online Language Dictionaries and Translators
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- Dutch 101 - A written introduction to Dutch grammar and vocabulary, in English.
- Dutch-English Study Group
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- Een cursus nieuwe spelling - René Verbrugge.
Online course manual alphabet for deaf-mutes.
- Go Dutch
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A practival sign language dictionary.
- Holland Institute of Generative Linguistics (HIL)
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Language, Style and Grammar Guides
- Referencing: Citation of Electronic Sources (SocioSite)
- Grammar and Language Courses
Links to online grammar and language courses for over 100 languages. The criteria for inclusion is that the grammars are accurate and useful for learning the language they describe. The offerings range from "Survival Bengali" to "An Integral Dutch Course" to Beards own "On-line Russian Reference Grammar." An additional page of morphology links connects to sites that will conjugate verbs, assist in declensions, and provide morphological analysis in response to user input. Editor: Robert Beard (Chair of the Russian Program at Bucknell University).
- Grammar Handbook - University of Illinois
The Handbook explains and illustrates the basic grammatical rules concerning parts of speech, phrases, clauses, sentences and sentence elements, and common problems of usage.
- Strunks Elements of Style
It includes sections on Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Rules of Composition, A Few Matters of Form, Words and Expressions Commonly Misused, and Words Commonly Misspelled.
- Web Writing Style Resources
Journalists and academics have their own style guides. But what resources are available for Web page writers? Besides the wide range of HTML and other coding resources, there are several writing style guides for people whose copy graces the Web. Here you find a collection of style guides.
- Aaron Fuegi's Collected Quotations
A personal collection.
- Aphorisms Galore!
A place to browse, search, submit, discuss and rate aphorismes and witty sayings by famous and not-so-famous people.
- Bartletts Familiar Quotations
A search engine for words & authors, and a chronological list of primary authors. Here you can discover who said what and when they said it. The collection ends with the 19th Century.
- Brainy Quote
A large variety of quotes structured in categories like movies, sport, politics, women and Blackadder.
- Frases Célebres - NoName Magazine
- Good Quotes by Famous People
A small collection of good quotes, from Gabriel Robins.
- Latijnse Citaten
Many Latin quotes and their Dutch translation, by Bouwe Brouwer.
- Oneliners and proverbs - In English and Dutch.
- Quotations Home Page
Contains thousands of quotations, old and new, familiar and obscure, humorous and pompous, ironic and maybe even a little profound. A place for enjoyment, enlightenment, exploration and general reference. Editor: Steve Spanoudis.
- The Quotations Page
Michael Moncurs Quotations Page features a rearchable database of over 27,000 humorous quotations from over 3.100 authors. If youre looking for a quote on a particular subject or author, try this one.
- Quotes about Science
Like this one: An atheist is a man who has no invisible means of support [John Buchan].
- Words to Remember: Quotes
A collection of 100 fabulous quotes selected by Albert Benschop.
dr. Albert Benschop
Social & Behavioral Studies
University of Amsterdam
24th February, 2018